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    Thread: The Engine Oil Guide

    1. #1

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      The Engine Oil Guide

      Just wanted to share a small piece of info about Engine oils used in our vehicles.

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      So folks check out your service books and check whether you are using a good quality/grade oil or obsolete one ?

      I use CI4 PLUS grade oil in my diesel car and SL grade oil in my petrol car.

      More Info : Welcome To The API Website
      2006 May, Safari Dicor 3.0 (88,500 Kms)
      1985 Mar, Suzuki SS80 DX (47,500 Kms)

      2001, MM550 XD
      1950, Land Rover Series 1

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      i ve been using mobil 1 fully synthetic 5w-50 for the past 30k km , dunno what grade it comes under :sleeping-blue:

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      I got to ask the Hyundai guys what Oil they are using, I have no clue :?
      "Sometimes I think the surest sign that intelligent life exists elsewhere in the universe is that none of it has tried to contact us."
      -Calvin

      Dai!!!

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      Present using mobil 5w50 fully synthetic and castrol edge fully synthetic.

      As a lay man most of us cant make out the protection and blah blah ,but the engines are super smooth and rev friendly.

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      After talking about the Grade of the Engine Oils you might have checked what oil is used in your vehicles.

      Now when you look further the specification of the oil is somewhat like :

      CASTROL GTD 15w40 CF 4
      or
      CASTROL GTX meets : SAE 15W-40, API CF 4 specifications.

      So you already know what it CF4 (API grading which is already obsolete, It was Introduced in 1990. For high-speed, four-stroke, naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. Can be used in place of CD and CE oils.)

      Then what do they mean by 15W 40 ?

      This is the viscosity of the oil :

      SAE Viscosity Grades for Engine Oils1 — SAE J300 Dec 99

      The actual viscosity grade of a lubricant is determined by the Society of Automotive Engineers, for example SAE-15W40 for a multigrade oil and SAE-40 for a monograde oil. The first number (15W) refers to the viscosity grade at low temperatures (W from winter), whereas the second number (40) refers to the viscosity grade at high temperature.
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      2006 May, Safari Dicor 3.0 (88,500 Kms)
      1985 Mar, Suzuki SS80 DX (47,500 Kms)

      2001, MM550 XD
      1950, Land Rover Series 1

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      Importance of Lubes

      Every mechanism requires lubrication!
      Without a lubricant, any engine or transmission would seize or wear out in a few minutes !

      The type lubes used in Vehicles

      Engine Oil or Motor Oil --used for engine lubrication.
      Gear Oil --used for manual transmission or differential lubrication.
      ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluid) -- used for automatic transmission lubrication.
      PSF (Power Steering Fluid) -- used in Power Steering as well as in GM Hydroboost systems.
      Grease --used for lubrication of drive shafts, CV (Constant Velocity) joints and various cables and mechanical linkages.


      When the proper lubricant is lacking the result is obvious, failure of the mechanism.
      However, the difference between poor, adequate and superior lubricant is not as easily seen.

      With adequate lubricant, the mechanism will usually perform well and will last for long time.

      With poor lubrication, the service life will be significantly less than the design life.

      With superior lubricant, the same mechanism may last many years longer.

      Lubrication is therefore most important in all cars, trucks and other motor vehicles,
      especially if a long and trouble free service life is what you are looking for.

      Life of a new car

      All passenger cars and light motor vehicles sold currently are designed, tested and certified for a useful service life which ranges from low of 2 years or 40,000 Kms to high of 15 years or 2,40,000 Kms.

      Majority of vehicles have 7 year or 1,50,000 Kms "useful life".

      You can find out which Cars with PZEV (Partial Zero Emission Vehicle) certification are available, they automatically have to have 15 years or 2,40,000 Kms Emission Performance Warranty, that however unfortunately does not Guarantee that the vehicle itself will be operational or trouble free for that long, what it means is IF the vehicle runs for that long, it will NOT pollute the air ! But will have to take an emission certificate for any vehicle more than a year old. This emission certificate has to be renewed every 6 months as per the Govt rules in India as of now.

      However, with the exception of the Exhaust Emission System and Fuel Evaporative System whose longevity, performance and warranty is required by EPA & CARB, most vehicles are Warranted against all other defects in manufacture and drivetrain performance for only:

      3 years or 50,000 Kms, whichever is first.

      Statistically most vehicles are reliable and relatively problem free if properly maintained for the first 5 years or 80,000 Kms. Most problems occur thereafter and repairs are usually required. That is why NO manufacturer or a bank will lease any new vehicle for more than 5 years or 80,000 Kms nor will be willing to finance new vehicle purchase for period longer than 60 months. (Some banks used to provide finance upto 84 months or 7 years which was stopped in 2006)

      Majority of leases are however only written for the period that is equivalent to the basic OEM warranty, usually 3 years.

      It is important to realize that the service specifications and recommendations in the vehicle owner's manual are based on this design life of not more than 7 years or 1,15,000 Kms.

      The recommended type of lubricant, the oil and oil filter change frequency, are considered optimal for vehicles that are operated under ideal conditions, and which are not expected to be used much beyond their design life.

      After all "every" vehicle manufacturer wants you to buy another NEW vehicle from them as soon as possible.

      The Automotive Industry design cycle has been 3 to 5 years for some time, that is any Automotive Manufacturer expects you to buy from them a NEW vehicle that often, or else they DO NOT want you as a customer.

      The Automotive Industry collapse of 2009 may slightly change this, but the fact is that currently NO Automotive Manufacturer in the World has a business model that is based on keeping existing vehicles in service. All Automotive Manufacturers only have business model based on producing MORE vehicles next year than they did year ago, and that is why the Automotive Industry collapse is happening in 2009 when Sales of NEW vehicles dropped to less than one half of 2008 sales level worldwide.

      No vehicle producer wants you to drive your vehicle "forever". Their business model is simply not designed to maintain already made vehicles on the road indefinitely. They are "all" organized to build NEW vehicles and sell them as quickly as possible.

      Currently 7,500 to 15,000 Kms engine oil and oil filter change interval, and 25,000 to 30,000 Kms transmission oil change is most commonly specified by OEM's. These recommendations are based on use of premium petroleum based lubricating oils with an API SM, API CJ-4 & ILSAC GF-3 performance rating for Motor Oil and Dexron or Mercon for ATF.

      In actual use most modern automobiles and light duty trucks last on the average about 7 to 9 years and about 1,50,000 to 2,00,000 Kms, before serious mechanical repairs are required. That is why "useful service life" for purposes of emission laws is defined by the OEM's as 7-years or 1,15,000-Kms.

      The average service life of most vehicles is 150,000 to 2,00,000 Kms and about 12 years, before they are scrapped, junked, or restored.

      Most cars are relatively trouble free if proper lubricants are used and frequently replaced.




      Contd..
      PS: This writeup is from various sources like API, SAE, various Lubricant Manufacturers etc.
      2006 May, Safari Dicor 3.0 (88,500 Kms)
      1985 Mar, Suzuki SS80 DX (47,500 Kms)

      2001, MM550 XD
      1950, Land Rover Series 1

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      Amazing info dude . Keep on revving this thread with oils info. Hope many will slide into this thread and get oily.
      Try walking into YOUR car rather than crawling. For me walking is always best ---GURU SHISHIR

    8. #8

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      After going through the previous post, there is a question which comes to mind.

      What to do for getting a long and trouble free service from your car ?

      If a longer reliable and trouble free service life of 5 years or 80,000 Kms is required, or if the vehicle is operated under severe or super severe operating conditions, the recommended service intervals need to be two to three times frequent.

      This means that if you desire long and trouble free vehicle service life, you should change the engine oil and filter every 5,000 to 6,500 Kms and transmission oil every 18,000 to 20,000 Kms.

      However, if you also operate the vehicle under severe conditions, as most vehicle owners do, the service interval should be between 4,000 to 5,500 Kms engine oil change and between 10,000 to 15,000 Kms for transmission oil change, this is if normal petroleum products (SF or CF-4) are used.

      However this question cannot be answered fully without going through the history of the “life” of a vehicle assumed by the manufacturers and different users, ( which can be a separate thread )

      Like to one person owning the same car for 3 or 4 years may seem like “forever” and he or she is ready for a new vehicle to be bought by then.

      Yet another person who has nice looking “clean” vehicle that is 7 years old and has over 1,00,000 Kms may in his or her mind think of it as “still new”!

      Ideal operation Condition:

      When the engine and transmission is operated at moderate loads, and is not subjected to hard accelerations and decelerations or is not operated under full load, when the engine is operated at normal operating temperature, and is not too cold nor too hot, and when the climatic conditions are comfortable for most human beings, that is no severe winter colds, no hot summer days and no excessive humidity or airborne dust.

      Severe operation Condition:

      When the engine and transmission is operated under high and frequently cycling loads such as fast high performance or racing driving or the more common "stop-and-go" driving, driving in dust or sand, short trips, especially in cold weather where the engine is not allowed to fully warm up, or carrying heavy loads, pulling trailers, especially during hot summer, or sustained high speed driving.

      Super severe operation Condition:

      It is any type of driving that would qualify as severe operating condition, but is additionally done in adverse climatic conditions, such as severe cold or high heat.


      How severe do you drive?

      Most car owners do not realize that their typical "normal" daily driving classifies as “severe" operating condition!

      The most common driving consists of short trips (less than 10 miles), periods of idling, "stop-and-go" driving, and frequent accelerations and decelerations. All of these conditions qualify as "severe" operating conditions.

      The most frequent type of driving is short trips with many stops and starts. Under such conditions the engine never reaches its normal operating temperature, particularly in winter.
      2006 May, Safari Dicor 3.0 (88,500 Kms)
      1985 Mar, Suzuki SS80 DX (47,500 Kms)

      2001, MM550 XD
      1950, Land Rover Series 1

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      Why do we need to change the Oil ?

      When motorists are asked: "Why does engine oil need to be changed?" the most common answers are:
      It gets dirty
      It breaks down
      Because my mechanic told me

      BUT all above reasons are WRONG !

      And here are the reasons:

      1. In modern fuel injected electronically controlled engines with "sealed" crankcases there is no way that "ambient" dirt can get into the engine oil. Only if AIR FILTER is defective (torn or improperly installed or missing) or PISTON RINGS are excessively worn or broken, small amount of "dirt" can be introduced into the engine lubricating oil.

      2. The Hydrocarbon Oil in its pure form is quite stable chemical, after all it has been in existence for millions of years before it was introduced into your vehicle. Almost no amount of pressure or mechanical stress will "damage" the oil molecules. Interaction with other chemicals, extreme heat and availability of oxygen will cause oxidation, formation of gum, varnish and sludge, but not a "Break Down". The long chain polymer molecules that are present in most multi-viscosity oils to give them high viscosity index, can however shear under stress and become shorter or smaller molecules. This loss of multi-viscosity property is sometimes referred to as "Viscosity Break-Down" a term that was introduced by CASTROL in their GTX Motor Oil commercials.

      3. Unfortunately most mechanics are NOT Automotive Engineers, are NOT Lubrication Engineers, are NOT Tribologists, are NOT Chemists, are NOT Rheologists.
      Neither is typical mechanic equipped with MICROSCOPE, VISCOMETER, TITRATION UNIT, SPECTRO-CHEMICAL ANALYZER.
      One needs all of above to determine if any Oil needs to be changed. Also since such TEST can cost from Rs 500 to Rs 5000, depending on accuracy and complexity, it is more convenient to change oil at some arbitrarily determined interval.


      There are two reasons why lubricants need to be changed periodically:

      1. The most important reason is chemical change of the lubricant itself. The lubricant looses its lubricating capacity due to chemical decomposition of the oil itself and due to depletion of the chemical additives that are present in modern oils. The more severe are the operating conditions, the faster does this change occur.

      2. The second reason is removal of wear particles that are present in the lubricant and which can not be removed by normal filtration. The greater the loads to which the mechanism is subjected the faster is the wear and more wear particles are present in the oil. Frequent starting and stopping of the engine, especially in winter, also increases wear and formation of "cold sludge".


      Is there an alternative to frequent oil changes?

      Yes, if more superior lubricant than that which is recommended by OEM is used, frequent servicing can be safely reduced or even eliminated.

      Synthetic Oils are usually better than petroleum oils, permitting extended oil drain periods.
      However it is important to realize that just because Oil is Synthetic, it does not automatically imply that it can be used for service periods that are any longer than those specified by OEM for Conventional Petroleum Oil.

      Both ExxonMobil (Mobil 1) and CASTROL (Syntec) specifically instruct consumers using their Synthetic Oils to follow OEM recommendations for Oil Change Interval that is same as specified for conventional petroleum oil, if the vehicle is under Warranty !

      CASTROL and Pennzoil both go as far as specifying only
      3 month or 5,000 Km service interval (same as petroleum)
      "for best performance".

      AMSOIL & PETRONAS are among the few companies that has several different longer life Motor Oils, some with one year or 30,000 Kms service interval, and others with 6 month or 12,500 Kms service interval.

      Synthetic Super Lubricants with colloidally suspended solid lubricants in chemically inert liquid synthetic oil are the best. They eliminate the need for oil changes in most applications.
      2006 May, Safari Dicor 3.0 (88,500 Kms)
      1985 Mar, Suzuki SS80 DX (47,500 Kms)

      2001, MM550 XD
      1950, Land Rover Series 1

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      shell guide

      Shell engine oil selection guide -

      Screen shot 2010-04-22 at 1.23.28 PM.png
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