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    Thread: How an Electric Car is Made ?

    1. #11

      ¿me trae la cuenta, por
      hombre's Avatar
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      Feb 2015
      Interesting. Why is Samsung under Renault though? When did it become a car brand?

    2. #12
      No Commerce, Just Fun
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      Quote Originally Posted by hombre View Post
      When did it become a car brand?
      way back 1994

      Quote Originally Posted by hombre View Post
      Why is Samsung under Renault though?
      Samsung Car Company got acquired by Renault in 2000

      You can read more here..

      Renault Samsung Motors - Wikipedia

      BTW, Samsung also made commercial vehicles. but it got closed in 2000 Samsung Commercial Vehicles - Wikipedia

    3. #13
      No Commerce, Just Fun
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      Nice documentary on how GM made first Elelctric car EV1 and then killed it...

      Some insights from the documentary:

      1. GM created the first electric car in the world, they sold and recalled 5000 cars and destroyed them on pressure from Oil Lobby

      2. It took Tesla 6 years to launch a vehicle, they collected 50K USD as advance from consumers who wanted tesla electric car, They even raised the price after the announcement, still consumers bought the car, as product offered superior experience and performance.

      3. Most sold mass market electric car is Nissan Leaf (not Tesla), Trust a Japanese company run by a French man (Brazilian-Lebanese-French) to develop and deliver the lowest cost electric car to the world.

      4. Ability to get the product right in terms of target consumer, pricing, positioning, performance and user experience is critical. Design has to be futuristic and not pre-historic.
      Last edited by Nomad; 21st Jan 2017 at 19:11.

    4. #14

      "Take a deep breath It's
      Just a BAD DAY, Not a BAD
      Queensyrche's Avatar
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      Quote Originally Posted by Nomad View Post
      Migration to Electric Cars
      Loved the topic, a special thanks for always coming up with great ones...

      I see that you have put a lot of thought into designing this diagram

      Quote Originally Posted by Nomad View Post
      Boys in their 40s love electric cars !!!!
      Nomad; seriously c'mon

      Quote Originally Posted by Nomad View Post
      I would peg my bet on India achieving 10% share for EVs by 2030. That would mean 500K to 600K Cars per year, which itself is a big market to address. Growing the market from current <1000 Electric cars per year to 500K per year is a real good challenge.
      You are right about India also trying to get a piece of the pie; however 10%, i think is a big ask to achieve by 2030 which is just another 13 years from now.

      Again appreciate the time and effort gone into compilation

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    5. #15
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      Migration to Electric Cars

      Boys love cars !, Young Boys love fast cars !!!, Boys in their 20s and 30s love smart and sporty cars !!!, Boys in their 40s love electric cars !!!!

      I have been smitten by electric car bug since last year. Since then, i have been studying the evolution of cars and their migration to becoming full electric. Thought of penning down a short note on this migration from a conventional fuel to a battery powered vehicle. A picture or graph is worth thousand words, so tried putting all those words into a pictorial representation as below.

      Click image for larger version. 

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      Conventional Fuel Cars:
      These are our conventional petrol or diesel cars. Over the years these cars have tried becoming greener by developing fuel efficient engines, down sizing the engines, but tail pipe emissions continue to pollute the environment. Emission norms advocated by environmentalists are often diluted by the regulators, in the interest (!) of the consumers and as lobbied by the automobile makers. There are always arguments like efficient public transport is the solution for reducing the tail pipe emissions. In the western world, even with efficient and wide spread public transport, the tail pipe emissions have continued. Greater awareness levels have resulted in the migration towards greener fuel options.

      FlexFuel Cars:
      These are the cars which accept a mix of petrol or diesel which are mixed with biofuels like ethanol for example. Petrol Vehicles accept E10 fuels which means petrol is blended with up to 10% Ethanol there by reducing the pollution to that effect. This feature makes engines bit expensive from a consumer point of view, but a small step in reducing the pollution over the lifetime of the car ownership.

      Smart and Connected Cars:
      This is an attempt to make the conventional cars more efficient from an usage perspective. An OBD2 device + a mobile app helps owner/driver to optimize or improve his driving behavior to achieve better fuel efficiency or optimize the carbon foot print through efficient routing or geo fencing etc. Over the period of time the benefits are realized by owners of large fleets where as individual owners have not been able to realize the benefits either in the form the operating costs or carbon footprint in a tangible way. Of course, Smart and Connected car features are increasingly being used and getting matured.

      Aftermarket Hybrid Cars:
      Gas Fuels like CNG and LPG have been advocated as alternative to the petrol or diesel. These being cheaper has been a driving force for adaption of after market kits for CNG or LPG to be fitted into conventional petrol or diesel cars. Again availability of CNG and LPG, payback period as well as concerns about vehicle damage has crippled mass adaption of such kits, even though it is less polluting than conventional petrol or diesel powered vehicles.

      Hybrid Cars:
      These cars accept two or more different fuel options. Some Car makers provide Petrol + CNG option. Some car makers offer Petrol + Electric option. Secondary option is less polluting than the primary option. Recently my friend drove his Petrol+CNG car to Bangalore. He drove with CNG fuel from Mumbai to Kolhapur and then switched to Petrol, there by reducing the tailpipe emissions in the state of Maharastra to some extent. The one with Electric option have limited range as the space available to fit in the battery is limited. Thanks to these options these cars end up as expensive to the consumer and increases upfront spending. Hence these cars have remained a niche and only bought by enthusiasts.

      Fuel Cell Cars:
      Some car makers invested in Hydrogen Fuel Cell technology as an alternative to Conventional Petrol/Diesel technology. But the technology and the product has been very expensive to own and operate. Fuel Cell cars provide longer range compared to battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen being explosive, there have been concerns about the stability of the technology as well as safety. So over the period of time these car maker shave pegged their investments and moved towards full electric vehicles.

      Electric Cars:
      Stored Electricity in a Battery as a fuel has been developed as an option to power Automobiles by General Motors in the previous century itself, but never scaled it up till Tesla disrupted the US market with their attractive, luxurious, efficient, simplified, easy to own and operate, zero tail pipe emission vehicle that can be driven over 400KMs in a single charge. This made Tesla a household name in automobile world. Nissan followed it up with a small electric car Leaf, which has gained distinction as most sold electric vehicle so far. Electric Cars are really gaining marketshare as alternative to conventional fuel cars. But Range is still and issue as it depends on battery size. Availability of charging stations is a roadblock in the growth of electric vehicles. But surplus electricity generation through solar is driving the adaption of the EVs across the western world and in in coming decade will also make their presence felt in emerging markets like India. Some countries have already made announcement to discontinue conventional fuel cars and migrate 100% to EVs by 2030.

      Electric + Solar Cars:
      In this case Solar Panels integrated with the electric car act as range extenders. But this extension is very limited and costs are very high. There have been attempts to build 100% solar powered cars, there has been attempts to make such car be driven across the world to demonstrate the technology maturity. I think, it is still few decades away as current Solar Panels are only <25% efficient in converting sun light into usable electricity.

      Autonomous Cars:
      These are made famous by Google Car Project, primarily to demonstrate driver less car, where the the car with it's mounted sensors drives on its own. I see it as a simple evolution of a feature called cruise control into Adaptive Cruise Control into AutoPilot into Autonomous Intelligence. There have been predictions that Autonomous cars are the future of personal mobility. But teaching a machine to behave like a human while performing non repetitive tasks is a difficult proposition and hence i feel we are at least couple of decades away from owning an autonomous cars. Price and Affordability is another question altogether.

      Personal Take:

      I definitely believe the Scandinavian and Western European countries will migrate 100% to EVs by 2030. I am sure Japan and Korea will soon follow the suite. I also think US will adapt EVs big time in these years. China and India will also try to migrate, but i am not sure how successful they would become. I would peg my bet on India achieving 10% share for EVs by 2030. That would mean 500K to 600K Cars per year, which itself is a big market to address. Growing the market from current <500 Electric cars per year to 500K per year is a real good challenge.

      Please feel free to share your views on this note. thanks for reading.

      Two key announcements that pave way for migration to Electric Vehicles in India are as below

      BS VI emission norms to kick in by 2020 April 1st.
      Govt. to implement BS-VI norms by 2020 - The Hindu

      Indian Government to ratify Kyoto protocol on climate change, there by making commitments binding and mandatory.
      India to ratify Kyoto Protocol on climate change; Cabinet approves the move - Times of India

      What does this migration from BSIV to BS VI mean in terms of emission specifications ?

      Click image for larger version. 

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      What is the impact on Vehicle Technology and Price ?

      Transitioning to BS-VI norms will require significant engine technology changes including improvements in engine combustion and calibration, increased injection and cylinder pressures, NOx and PM after-treatment solutions and transitioning to electronic controls.

      New emission norms will also have to be met in all conditions and not just the ideal testing conditions. Two engine fitments will be typically required for up-gradation of passenger cars to BS-VI norms from BS-IV norms.

      Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)- For reduction of PM in diesel vehicles
      Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Module - For reduction in Nix emissions

      Due to this technology upgrade, price of petrol cars are expected to go up by Rs 20,000- 30,000 while diesel passenger vehicles’ prices may go up substantially by Rs 75,000-1,00,000. This will further reduce attractiveness of buying diesel cars (more polluting than petrol cars), with diesel fuel prices moving closer to petrol in recent times.
      What needs to be done to make this migration happen ?

      Click image for larger version. 

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      (Source: Simply put: What needs to be done to upgrade from BS-IV | The Indian Express)

      How does this impact growth prospects for Electric Vehicles ?

      Three segments will open up thanks to these emission norms and regulations.

      1. Light Pickup vehicles: Light commercial vehicles used for goods transport is a segment which would be affected badly due to the technological up gradation, making it an attractive segment for Electric Vehicle

      2. Passenger Taxies: City Taxi Fleets, APP based taxi fleets which are currently using Diesel powered vehicles are expected to be migrated to electric vehicles. Uber, Ola and their investors have already made few announcements supporting migration to electric vehicles, making it a definite bet

      3. Passenger Cars: Probably this is the most difficult segment to open up in India, but there are enough driving forces like Power, Acceleration, Lower Operating costs etc which can enable the segment to grow once the inhibitors like range anxiety, charging ecosystems are taken care off.

      I definitely feel 500K Vehicles per year run rate by 2030 is a definite target to have for the indian automobile industry. Probably GoI Ministers might want to go more aggressively.

      Last edited by Nomad; 24th Jan 2017 at 23:26.

    6. #16
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      What we need to have in order to build an Electric Car ?

      In Conventional Cars, Fuel is the Energy, Engine is the Energy Converter (heart) of the car and Drive Train & ECU is the brain.

      In Electric Cars following are the key parts viz.

      Electricity = Fuel (Energy)
      Battery & Battery Management = Energy Storage and Source (Heart)
      Motor and Traction Controller = Electric Drive Train (Brain)

      Click image for larger version. 

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      As there is no Engine, the whole construction of the electric car is highly simplified as shown below. Tesla further simplified it by employing in-wheel drives which are directly connected to the wheel, there by reducing losses to great extent and increasing efficiency.

      Click image for larger version. 

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      Click image for larger version. 

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      Electric Car can be made more powerful by employing more than one motor as shown in the above example from Tesla.

      an Electric Vehicle (EV) Developer should have the following

      Battery Module which includes Battery Cells, Battery Control Module (BCM), Battery Package, Battery Enclosure for safety and protection, Battery Charger, Inverter which coverts DC into AC to drive the motor.

      In-Wheel Drive Train Module includes, Motor, Motor Controller, Power Steering Unit, ABS/Braking, wheels etc.

      Body Includes Chassis, mechanical suspension, metal exterior structure, doors, interiors, body control unit including lighting, clusters, dashboard etc.

      Rest includes Seats, passenger safety viz seat belts, airbags, impact protections, Infotainment system and accessories.

      Click image for larger version. 

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      The above diagram is a oversimplified version of the EV architecture. next step is to develop individual parts as listed above.

    7. #17
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      How it is made : Tyres, Alloys, Airbags, Airbag Sensors, Headlights Assembly

      Michelin Tyre Factory

      BBS Wheels Factory

      Safety Airbags Factory

      Airbag Sensor

      Headlights Assembly

      Last edited by Nomad; 5th Mar 2017 at 17:17.

    8. #18
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      Autonomous Driving- What is it ?

      Autonomous Driving would be a major feature of Electric Cars.

      Autonomous Driving Explained in the below video

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      Source: The six official levels of autonomous vehicles explained / Boing Boing

    9. #19
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      What are the process steps in manufactuirng an electric car ?

      Following image compiles Three Major Automobile clusters of India.

      (1) National Capital Region / Haryana
      (2) Chennai
      (3) Pune - Nasik - Aurangabad - Mumbai

      Click image for larger version. 

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      I do not have much experience in the mechanical, sheet metal, automobile manufacturing domain. hence I made few visits to Pune to meet known companies in Automobile domain. these visits and meetings provided me some basic understanding on the processes that are followed inside a automobile manufacturing unit. I tried drawing it pictorially as below. I have also added additional sections that are needed for Electric Cars and deleted sections that are used only in conventional cars.

      Click image for larger version. 

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      Tool Room : Develops tools, moulds, jigs needed for manufacturing the mechanical and plastic parts needed in the vehicle.
      Press Shop: Presses/stamps out the exteriors and body parts.
      Weld Shop : Welds different body parts and creates Body-In-White or Monocoque

      Above three put together is generally called BIW Line.

      Battery Shop : This is where the Battery Cells are packaged with Battery Control Module (BCM) and moulded into a form needed.
      Electric Drive Train Shop: This is where Inverter, Motor Controller and Motor is packaged into an Electric Drive Train Unit
      InWheel Drive Assembly: This is where Front and Rear in-wheel Drive Assembly is made and functionally tested.

      The output of above three assembly shops are supplied to TCF Shop.

      Paint Shop : This is where the Painting is done on the BIW / Exterior body parts
      TCF Shop : This is where body trims, chassis parts are assembled and vehicle assembly gets finished and car is driven out

      Key Suppliers Base provides subsystems and key components which are functionally working to the TCF shop where they are fitted into the vehicle.

      Test Bay: This is where vehicle is tested for various performance, quality and reliability aspects.
      Warehouse: once vehicles are tested and cleared by Quality Assurance Department, they are stored in warehouse waiting for dispatch.

      Most of the Automobile manufacturers build their own assembly lines which includes all of above. Fabless / Contract Manufacturing model is yet to arrive into Automobile Manufacturing. I think once electric cars market grows significantly, i am confident that it will also go fabless way, just like any other electronic product. till such time, need to spend money on capex to build the manufacturing base.

      Last edited by Nomad; 7th Mar 2017 at 15:59.

    10. #20
      Formerly IITK
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      As Nomad; states the common design for EVs has the batteries under the floor pan. This will naturally conform with out preference for higher (SUV type) vehicles. However we will not get the higher ground clearance.
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